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A Detailed Comparison of Greek Gods and Their Roman Equivalents

Greek Gods and their Roman Equivalents
The Greek and Roman pantheons can be quite easily compared, since the structures of the two pantheons is quite similar. Here is a handy comparison of Greek gods and their Roman counterparts.
Tanmay Tikekar
Last Updated: Jun 3, 2018
Did You Know?
The king of gods in at least one other pantheon is also the god of sky and thunder―Indra, the king of gods in the Hindu pantheon. Thor, the prince of Asgard, is also the god of thunder.
The ancient Greek civilization was influential for centuries after its demise, and is responsible for many human traits in the modern world. It also conceptualized and recorded one of the first pantheons in human history. The Greek pantheon began with Uranus and Gaia, the personifications of the sky and mother Earth, respectively. This union led to the birth of Titans. Titans gave birth to the Olympian gods, including Zeus, the king of Olympian gods.

This pantheon was then adopted by the Romans when they captured and assimilated the Greek empire. This confluence of rich cultures produced some of the most long-lasting iconography. The Romans equated gods from their own tradition with the Hellenic gods, borrowing heavily from Greek traditions to embellish their own pantheon.

Here are the prominent Hellenic gods, along with their equivalent Roman deity.
Greek Name Anglicized Roman Name Domain
Helios Sol Personification of the Sun.
Zeus Jupiter God of sky and thunder, king of the gods.
Cronus Saturn God of harvesting and agriculture.
Ares Mars God of war.
Hermes Mercury God of trade, merchants, travelers.
Aphrodite Venus Goddess of sexual love, beauty, and sensuousness.
Ouranos Caelus God/Personification of the sky.
Poseidon Neptune God of the seas and horses.
Pluto/Hades Pluto / Dispater God of the underworld.
Gaia Terra Personification of Earth.

As you can see, the Roman names of these particular gods (except Uranus, which is the anglicized version of 'Ouranos') were assigned to the main celestial bodies in our solar system.
These are some more Greek gods, along with their Roman counterparts.

NOTE: The gods have been listed alphabetically according to the original Greek names.

Greek Name Anglicized Roman Name Domain
Amphitrite Salacia Goddess of the oceans, consort of Poseidon/Neptune.
Ananke Necessitas Personification of destiny/fate.
Apollo Apollo God of light, healing, music, poetry, etc.
Artemis Diana Goddess of virginity, childbirth, hunting and wild animals. Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo.
Asclepius Vejovis God of medicine and healing. Asclepius was a son of Apollo. The modern symbol for medicine, the rod of Asclepius, is named after him.
Athena Minerva Goddess of wisdom, strategy, warfare, law and justice, arts, and civilization.
Atropos Morta Atropos was one of the Moirai, responsible for cutting the thread of one's lifespan. Accordingly, Morta was the goddess of death or mortality.
Boreas Aquilo God/personification of the north wind. Boreas, Eurus, Notus, and Zephyrus were the major Anemoi, the wind gods.
Chloris Flora Goddess of blossoms, and flowers (flora).
Clotho Nona One of the Moirai (Fates), responsible for spinning on a spindle the thread that determined a person's lifespan. Nona was the goddess of pregnancy.
Cybele, Rhea Magna Mater Great mother of gods.
Demeter Ceres Goddess of harvest and fertility of the Earth. The asteroid Ceres is named after her.
Dionysus Bacchus/Liber God of wine and uninhibited joy.
Enyo Bellona Goddess of war, sister and counterpart of Ares/Mars.
Eos Aurora Goddess of dawn.
Eris Discordia Goddess of discord and strife
Eros Cupid God of sexual love and lust.
Eurus Vulturnus Personification/god of the east wind.
Hebe Juventas Goddess of youth.
Hecate Trivia Goddess of crossroads and sorcery (necromancy).
Hephaestus Vulcan God of volcanoes, lava, smelters, and metalwork.
Hera Juno Goddess of marriages and family. Hera was the sister and wife of Zeus.
Hestia Vesta Goddess of hearths and civilization.
Hygieia Salus Personification of hygiene,  sanitation, goddess of well-being.
Hypnos Somnus Personification of sleep.
Lachesis Decima One of the Moirai, responsible for measuring the thread that determined a person's lifespan. Decima is considered the goddess of childbirth.
Nike Victoria Goddess of victory.
Notus Auster God/personification of the south wind.
Nyx Nox Personification of the night.
Pan Faunus, Silvanus God of wilderness, sheep, and shepherds.
Pheme Fama Personification of fame and rumors.
Selene Luna Goddess of the Moon.
Thanatos Mors Personification of death. Thanatos was the half-brother of Hypnos.
Themis Justitia Personification of inherent natural laws.
Tyche Fortuna Goddess of good fortune, luck, and prosperity.
Zephyrus Favonius God/personification of the west wind.
This process of adopting and assimilating Greek deities into the Roman culture was called Interpretatio Graeca.  The phrase literally means 'interpretation with reference to the Greeks'. The artwork depicting these deities is similar in most cases.